When you hear the word ultrasound, you probably think of pregnancies, but did you know that ultrasounds can have other uses? In this episode, we discuss how researchers want to use focused ultrasound to treat Alzheimer's disease. 

 

Sources

https://www.alzheimers.net/new-ultrasound-therapy-treat-dementia/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/12/191203082912.htm

BBB: https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/bbb.html

 Ultrasound: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/245491.php

AD: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-alzheimers

Focused ultrasound clinical trial: https://www.medpagetoday.com/neurology/alzheimersdisease/64114

FU + AD: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04529-6.pdf

Phase II clinical trial: https://ichgcp.net/clinical-trials-registry/NCT03739905

Dr. Lipsman explaining the technique and applications: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfuIzJS5Yqw

Drug discovery is a complicated and expensive process that can take years for a drug to finally come to market. In this week's podcast we walk you through the process of drug discovery looking through the lens of cystic fibrosis. We explain the many steps including screens for different drug compounds, the different phases of testing and the vast regulations that drugs in the US are under to protect people! Finally, we link this back to COVID-19 and some of the drugs that are currently being tested to see if they help treat COVID-19 symptoms. 

// SOURCES:

Sources

Cystic Fibrosis: https://www.cff.org/a

Cystic Fibrosis: https://www.cff.org/Research/About-Our-Research/Research-Milestones/

Cystic Fibrosis: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CFTR#:~:text=Normal%20Function,%2C%20tears%2C%20and%20digestive%20enzymes.

Ivacaftor discovery: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770629/pdf/dddt-7-929.pdf

Original Ivacaftor screen: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16443646/

Ivacaftor company: https://investors.vrtx.com/news-releases/news-release-details/fda-approves-kalydecotm-ivacaftor-first-medicine-treat

Ivacaftor clinical trials: https://www.clinicaltrialsarena.com/projects/ivacaftor-treatment-for-cystic-fibrosis/

Follow-up characterization: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2773991/

Drug discovery process: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22930/

Drug discovery process http://phrma-docs.phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/rd_brochure_022307.pdf

Drug discovery process: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-approval-process-drugs

Drug failure/approval: https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2019/05/09/the-latest-on-drug-failure-and-approval-rates

COVID-19 Treatments: https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/antiviral-therapy/chloroquine-or-hydroxychloroquine/

COVID-19 Treatments: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-issues-emergency-use-authorization-potential-covid-19-treatment

Right to Try: https://www.fda.gov/patients/learn-about-expanded-access-and-other-treatment-options/right-try

Hydroxychloroquine shortage: https://www.arthritis.org/drug-guide/medication-topics/plaquenil-shortage

Hydroxychloroquine shortage: https://www.lupus.org/news/fda-recognizes-hydroxychloroquine-and-chloroquine-shortages

Vitamins have gone from unknown to a billion dollar industry within a century! In the previous episode we covered the basics of what vitamins are and how they were discovered. During this episode, we'll focus on how vitamins and supplements, the broader class of dietary additives, are marketed, evaluated, and regulated. It may shock you to learn that supplements are not routinely evaluated by the FDA! That's right, being in pill form does not make supplements equal to the level of scrutiny that we place on medicine and drugs in this country. If you use/need supplements, please check out our sources and listen for some strategies that you can use to research reliable sources of supplements!

Sources:

Vitamania book: https://www.amazon.com/Vitamania-Vitamins-Revolutionized-Think-About/dp/0143108158

Vitamin A toxicity: https://www.healthline.com/health/hypervitaminosis-a#causes

History of vitamin advertising: https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/vitamins-come-to-dinner

FDA regulation of vitamins: https://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/30/us/diet-supplements-attacked-by-fda.html

https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/06/supplements-make-tobacco-look-easy/488798/

NIH Dietary supplements: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/DietarySupplements-HealthProfessional/

Vitamin C commercial: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_F_ZZvdHqPM

EMS: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/eosinophilia-myalgia-syndrome/

St. John’s-Wort drug interactions: https://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/st-john-s-wort.html

Plant vs animal vitamins:

https://www.kevinstock.io/health/vitamins-and-minerals-plants-vs-animals/

Harvard – best foods for certain vitamins: https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/the-best-foods-for-vitamins-and-minerals

Identifying safe vitamins: https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/02/12/107141/
https://www.consumerreports.org/supplements/how-to-choose-supplements-wisely/
USP:https://www.quality-supplements.org/verified-products/verified-products-listings#list3

NSF: https://www.nsf.org/about-nsf/

ConsumerLab: https://www.consumerlab.com/

NatureMade: http://www.naturemade.com/about-nature-made/science-based

Ritual website: https://ritual.com/products/essential-for-women-multivitamin

Ritual clinical trial:https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03828097?term=Multivitamin%2C+Auburn+University&draw=2&rank=1

Ritual partnership with Auburn university: http://www.education.auburn.edu/news/roberts-masl-lab-complete-large-scale-clinical-trial-in-partnership-with-ritual/

During these unprecedented times, many people have reported having strange dreams - and others just more dreams! What is causing this shift in our dreaming patterns? In this episode, we talk about our limited understanding of dreams & sleep, and we discuss why experts believe this change is happening.

Sources:

Dream Survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/B8S75CN

Dr. Barrett’s website: http://www.deirdrebarrett.com/

Sleep & Coronavirus:

http://science.unctv.org/content/blog/dreams

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/04/coronavirus-pandemic-is-giving-people-vivid-unusual-dreams-here-is-why/

https://www.latimes.com/lifestyle/story/2020-04-07/coronavirus-quarantine-dreams (Interview with HMS sleep researcher)

Sleep cycles: https://www.sleep.org/articles/what-happens-during-sleep/

Italian earthquake: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055936

With warmer weather rolling in, many of you are probably dreaming of a nice cold ice cream cone, but not everyone can enjoy this tasty treat! In this episode, we discuss lactose intolerance - we've all heard of the unfortunate symptoms, but what are the biological and genetic causes behind this phenomenon?

Sources: 

Lactose intolerance facts: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/lactose-intolerance

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/lactose-intolerance#genes

https://www.theweek.co.uk/64017/lactose-intolerant-why-most-of-us-can-t-digest-milk

Lactose genetics: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/smallgut/lactose_intol.html

March 24, 2020

What Causes Allergies?

Allergy season is in full swing! Cars are covered in pollen, sneezes abound, and Claritin is being swiped off the shelves faster than toilet paper. 

In this video we discuss the difference between allergies and food intolerances, the role of our immune system in allergies, different types of allergy tests, and hypotheses as to why people have more allergies now than they did 100 years ago!

 

// SOURCES 

Adaptive vs innate immunity: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/tutorials/immunology/page3.html

Allergy testing info: 

https://health.clevelandclinic.org/3-reasons-why-home-allergy-tests-probably-wont-help-you/

Different kind of allergy tests review: 

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1258/acb.2011.011011

Genetic tests and allergies: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5407010/

Importance of not putting children on diets based off of allergy tests:

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jun/04/bogus-allergy-tests-causing-real-harm-say-experts

Blood testing for allergies: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314037/pdf/1840666.pdf

Making sense of allergies PDF: 

https://senseaboutscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Making-Sense-of-Allergies-1.pdf

Frequent allergies: 

(https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/allergies-more-frequent_us_561b1687e4b0e66ad4c85844)

Overactive immune system: https://www.embriahealth.com/resources/healthlifestylereports

Germany Environmental factors: 

https://www.allergicliving.com/2010/11/20/allergies-why-so-many-now/

Epigenetics and allergies: 

https://www.npr.org/2013/04/15/177319365/the-doctor-trying-to-solve-the-mystery-of-food-allergies

The Coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2 as it is actually named, has in a matter of months killed over 1,170 people and sickened over 70,000 others with a pneumonia-like disease called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). A lot of questions are being asked about how it can spread, what the research says and what this means for the rest of the world.

In this week's episode we talk about the basic biology behind SARs-CoV-2, we discuss recently published science about transmission dynamics, the reproduction value, incubation period and doubling time of the virus, and we end discussing China's response to the virus and the misplaced xenophobia people have during this time. 

SOURCES // 

Birth control cleanses have become all the rage recently due to Instagram Influencers promoting it to women who are struggling with infertility. In this week's episode we research this cleanse, its ingredients and how birth control works in general. 

Main article: http://www.thepipettepen.com/unpackaging-hormonal-birth-control-facts-not-facts/

Emma and Rachel are the Steministas! In this episode, we'll be discussing the science that we do in our labs at UNC! We will tell you about how we got interested in science, why we decided to go to graduate school, and what we research. You can follow us on Instragram @steministas, Twitter @steministasunc, and Facebook @Steministas

October 20, 2019

Who are the Steministas?

Emma and Rachel are the Steministas! Our goal is to educate the public about science in the news by diving into the primary literature behind news articles.

In this week's episode we talk about the purpose of Steministas, how we approach reading primary literature and why we chose to migrate from YouTube to the podcasting sphere.

Follow us over on Instagram @steministas, Twitter @steministasunc and Facebook @Steministas!

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